Institutional Ethnography (IE) is a distinctive mode of inquiry, which seeks to understand how what actual people do and experience is organized in relation others. Epistemologically, IE is distinguished from other sociological approaches by its commitment to beginning inquiry with what people know and have experienced. A people's actions are never taken up without recognizing where and how they coordinate with others. That is what adds up to 'the social' for institutional ethnography. Ontologically, then, IE resists treating the social as “out there” to be researched; rather, the social is understood to be put together in the coordinated activities of actual people at particular historically-situated moments where activities include what is done in language as well as thinking and imagining.
IE was developed by Dorothy E. Smith and her students in the context of the North American women’s movements of the 1970s and 80s as a “sociology for women” (Smith, 1987); more recently, Smith (2005) has described IE as a “sociology for people” (Smith 2005). Institutional ethnographies are designed to explicate the puzzles of people’s everyday lives. People are not the objects of an IE analysis, and institutional ethnographers actively resist the processes of objectification that typify social science research. In an IE study, the objects of analysis are the objectified relations of governance or social coordination that connect us to one another and – in various and contradictory ways – give shape to our lives.
Research always begins with what people know and have experienced. That is, it begins in the actual practices and activities of people at particular moments in time and in particular local settings. Researchers pay attention to how people’s thoughts and actions are coordinated with the thoughts and actions of others. Analytically, the aim is to discover how material relations – the actual things people do, think and say in coordination with others – are organized or put together in the ways that they are. To actualize IE’s analytic aims one does not limit her researching to recording what people say and do. Rather, what people say and do anchors an investigation of methods of coordination that link and transcend individual people participating in a research study. IE researchers seek discover how particular ways of knowing or doing are mediated by people’s everyday engagement with an array of texts and textually-mediated processes (e.g., music videos, online newsfeeds, print media, radio, measures, indices, scales, theories, systems of classification, administrative reports, public discourse, policy, legislation, application forms other ordinary workplace texts). Ultimately, the goal is to produce knowledge that is useful to people, helping them to address the concerns and issues they’ve identified in conversation with researchers.
Our Division provides a place for those using IE to extend and elaborate it, and to explore its usefulness as a method of inquiry. We regularly hold workshops in conjunction with the meetings of the Society for the Study of Social Problems, where we welcome both novice and more “seasoned” participants’ contributions.
Division mission statement last edited in December 2016 by Dorothy E. Smith, University of Victoria, Institutional Ethnography Division Founding Member and Naomi Nichols, McGill University, Institutional Ethnography Division Chair, 2015-2017.
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Braimoh, J. (2015). A Service Disparity for Rural Youth: Producing Service Decisions in the Urban Youth Centre and its Rural Branch. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 42(2), 31-54.
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Brunson, J. L. (2008). The practice and organization of sign language interpreting in video relay service: An institutional ethnography of access (Doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University).
Campbell, M. & Rankin, J. (Forthcoming, 2017). Nurses and Electronic Health Records in a Canadian Hospital: Examining the Social Organisation and Programmed Use of Digitised Nursing Knowledge. Sociology of Health and Illness.
Campbell, M. (2015). Intersectionality, Policy-Oriented Research and the Social Relations of Knowing. Gender, Work & Organization.
Rankin, J., & Campbell, M. (2014). Care and gender in nurses’ institutionally organized work. Moral boundaries redrawn. The significance of Joan Tronto’s argument for political theory, professional ethics, and care as practice. Herent: NV Peeters SA, 153-173.
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Campbell, M. L., & Teghtsoonian, K. (2010). Aid effectiveness and women’s empowerment: Practices of governance in the funding of international development. Signs, 36(1), 177-202.
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Rankin, J., & Campbell, M. (2009). Institutional ethnography (IE), nursing work and hospital reform: IE's cautionary analysis. In Forum qualitative sozialforschung/forum: Qualitative social research, 10(2).
Rankin, J., & Campbell, M. (2006). Managing to nurse: Inside Canada's health care reform. University of Toronto Press.
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Campbell, M., & Gregor, F. (2002). Mapping social relations: A primer in doing institutional ethnography. University of Toronto Press.
Campbell, M. (2001). Textual accounts, ruling action: the intersection of knowledge and power in the routine conduct of community nursing work. Studies in Cultures, Organizations and Societies, 7(2), 231-250.
Campbell, M. (2000). Participatory research on health care for people with disabilities: exploring the social organization of service provision. Research in Social Science and Disabilities, 1(1), 131-154.
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Campbell, M. (2008). (Dis)continuity of Care: Discovering the Ruling Relations of Home Support. In DeVault, M. (Ed.), People At Work: Life, Power, and Social Inclusion in the New Economy, 266-288. NYU Press.
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Dale, C. M., Angus, J. E., Sinuff, T., & Rose, L. (2016). Ethnographic Investigation of Oral Care in the Intensive Care Unit. American Journal of Critical Care, 25(3), 249-256.
Dale, C. M. (2013). Locating Critical Care Nurses in Mouth Care: An Institutional Ethnography (Doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto).
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DeVault, M. L. (2014). Mapping Invisible Work: Conceptual Tools for Social Justice Projects. Sociological Forum, 29(4), pp. 775-790.
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DeVault, M. L. (2008). People at work: Life, power, and social inclusion in the new economy. NYU Press.
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DeVault, M. L., & McCoy, L. (2002). Institutional Ethnography: Using Interviews to Investigate Ruling Relations. In Gubrium, J., & Holstein, J. (Eds), Handbook of Interview Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Diamond, T. (1992). Making Gray Gold: Narratives of Nursing Home Care. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Dunn, M. E. (2016). Reclaiming Opportunities for Effective Teaching: An Institutional Ethnographic Study of Community College Course Outlines. New York: Lexington Books.
Eastwood, L. E. (2002). The social organization of policy: An institutional ethnography of the United Nations Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (Doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University).
Fast, O. (2016). The Social Organization of the Staffing Work of Nurse Managers: A Critique of Contemporary Nursing Workload Technologies (Doctoral dissertation, University of Calgary).
Flad, J. (2010). Advocating work: An institutional ethnography of patients' and their families' experiences within a managed care health system (Doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University).
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Goldman, J., & Maret, S. (2016). Intelligence and Information Policy for National Security: Key Terms and Concepts. Rowman & Littlefield.
Grace, D., Egan, M., & Lock, K. (2016). Examining local processes when applying a cumulative impact policy to address harms of alcohol outlet density. Health & place, 40, 76-82.
Grace, D. (2015). Criminalizing HIV transmission using model law: Troubling best practice standardizations in the global HIV/AIDS response. Critical Public Health, 25(4), 441-454.
Grace, D., McGill, E., Lock, K., & Egan, M. (2014). How do Cumulative Impact Policies work? Use of institutional ethnography to assess local government alcohol policies in England. The Lancet, 384, S34.
Grace, D. (2013). Transnational institutional ethnography: Tracing text and talk beyond state boundaries. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 12(1), 587-605.
Grace, D. (2013). Legislative epidemics: the role of model law in the transnational trend to criminalise HIV transmission. Medical humanities, 39(2), 77-84.
Grace, D. (2012). This is not a law: the transnational politics and protest of legislating an epidemic (Doctoral dissertation, University of Victoria).
Grahame, K. M. (1998). Feminist organizing and the politics of inclusion. Human Studies, 21(4), 377-393.
Griffith, A. I., & Smith, D. E. (2005). Mothering for schooling. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.
Gross, G. (2013). "My pedagogy is where so much of my feminism happens": The Social Organization of Feminist Educators' Work in the Corporatizing Academy (Doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University).
Hewson, S. M. (2013). Control, shift, insert: living and enacting policy in teachers' day/night work.
Høgsbro, K. (2015). Evidence and research designs in applied sociology and social work research. Nordic Social Work Research, 5(sup1), 56-70.
Høgsbro, K., & Burholt, A. (2015). The dementia problematic. An institutional Ethnography of a life-world and a professional service (DK). Aalborg Universitetsforlag.
Høgsbro, K., et al. (2013). The social aspects of ADHD (DK). Aalborg Universitetsforlag.
Høgsbro, K., Eskelinen, L., Fallov, M., Mejlvig, K., & Berger, N. (2012). When limits are challenged – Staff mental workload and pedagogical challenges in residential care homes for people with general learning disabilities and developmental and behavioral disorders (DK/E). AKF/Aalborg University.
Høgsbro, K. (2010). SIMREB – Towards a Systematic Inquiry into Models for Rehabilitation. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 12(1), 1-18.
Høgsbro, K. (2008). Qualitative methods in research and evaluations (DK). AKF.
Høgsbro, K. (2007). Etiba. A research based evaluation of rehabilitation methods offered to pre-school children with autism with a special focus on ABA (Applied Behavior Analysis) (DK/E). MarcelisborgCentret/AKF.
Høgsbro, K., Brandt, P., Ebsen, F., Thomsen, O., & Nordentoft, M. (2003). The users, the professionals and the authorities (DK/E). AKF Forlaget.
Høgsbro, K., Bovbjerg, K., Smith, L., Kirk, M., & Henriksen, H. (2003). Hidden life-worlds (DK/E). AKF Forlaget.
Høgsbro, K. (2002). Rehabilitation of people with traumatic brain injury at Kolonien Filadelfia (DK/E). AKF Forlaget.
Høgsbro, K., Kirkebæk, B., Blom, S., & Danø, E. (1999). Adolescence, personal development and disability – Experiences from a developmental program for 23 youngsters supporting their transition to a life as autonomous grownups (DK). Samfundslitteratur.
Liang, L. F. (2015). The distortions of care needs and medical professionalism: The ruling practices of migrant labor policy in Taiwan. Journal of aging studies, 34, 29-37.
Liang, L. (2010). Constructing migrant care labor: A study of institutional process and the discourse of migration and work (Doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University).
Lirette, P. R. (2012). Child care accreditation in Alberta: An institutional ethnography (Doctoral dissertation, University of Alberta).
Luken, P. C., & Vaughan, S. (2006). Standardizing Childrearing Through Housing. Social Problems, 53(3), 299-331
Mykhalovskiy, E. (2016). Institutional Ethnography and Activist Futures. In Third ISA Forum of Sociology.
Mykhalovskiy, E. (2016). Making science count: significant risk, HIV Non-disclosure and the science-based criminal law reform: A reflexive analysis. In Stanton, C. & Quirk, H. (Eds.), Criminalising contagion: Legal and ethical challenges of disease transmission and the criminal law. Cambridge University Press.
Mykhalovskiy, E. (2011). The problem of ‘significant risk’: Exploring the public health impact of criminalizing HIV non-disclosure. Social Science & Medicine, 73(5), 668-675.
Mykhalovskiy, E. (2008). Beyond decision making: Class, community organizations and the healthwork of people living with HIV/AIDS. Contributions from institutional ethnographic research. Medical Anthropology: Cross Cultural Studies in Health and Illness, 27(2), 136-63.
Mykhalovskiy, E., & Church, K. (2006). Of T-shirts and ontology: The pedagogical legacies of George Smith. In Kinsman, G. et al. (Eds.), Sociology for changing the world: Social movements/social research. Toronto: Fernwood.
Mykhalovskiy, E., & Farrell, K. (2005). ‘Nothing happens in medical school that prepares you for working with anyone who’s different:’ Exploring informal learning and the development of socio-clinical knowledge amongst family physicians. Research in the Sociology of Health Care, 23, 161-183.
Mykhalovskiy, E., McCoy, L., & Bresalier, M. (2004). Compliance/Adherence, HIV/AIDS and the critique of medical power. Social Theory and Health, 2(4):315-340.
Mykhalovskiy, E. (2003). Evidence-based medicine: Ambivalent reading and the clinical recontextualization of science. Health: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine, 7(3), 331-352.
Mykhalovskiy, E. & L. McCoy. (2002). Troubling ruling discourses of health: Using Institutional Ethnography in community-based research. Critical Public Health, 12(1), 17-37.
Mykhalovskiy, E. (2001). Troubled hearts, care pathways and hospital restructuring: Exploring health services research as active knowledge. Studies in Cultures, Organizations, and Societies, 7(2), 269-296.
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Nichols, N., Gaetz, S., & Dyck, M. (Forthcoming, 2016). Both Sides Now: The Social Organization of Community-Academic Collaboration. In L. Bisaillon (Ed.), The Impact of Policy on Everyday Life: The Policy Stories That People Tell. The Netherlands: Springer.
Nichols, N. & Braimoh, J. (2016). Community Safety, Housing Precariousness and Processes of Exclusion: An institutional ethnography from the standpoints of youth in an "unsafe" urban neighbourhood. Critical Sociology. DOI: 10.1177/0896920516658941
Nichols, N. (2016). Investigating the Social Relations of Human Service Provision: Institutional ethnography and activism. Journal of Comparative Social Work, Special Edition on Institutional Ethnography, 11(1), available at: <http://journal.uia.no/index.php/JCSW/article/view/360
Nichols, N. (2016). Development in Context: Housing Instability, Homelessness, and Youth Work. In Mizzi, R., Rocco, T., & Shore, S. (Eds.) Disrupting Adult and Community Education: Teaching, Learning, and Working on the Periphery. Albany: SUNY Press.
Nichols, N., Mistry, N., Ford-Jones, L.E., Fridman, M., & Ramadan, K. (2015). The Social Organization of Family Health Work: An institutional ethnography. Journal of Critical Public Health, 27. DOI:10.1080/09581596.2015.1119804
Nichols, N. (2014.) Youth Work: An institutional ethnography of youth homelessness. Toronto: The University of Toronto Press.
Nichols, N. (2014). Research and Development Work at an Ontario Youth Shelter. In Griffith and Smith (Eds.) Under New Public Management: Institutional Ethnographies of Changing Front-line Work. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Nichols, N. (2013). Nobody “Signs out of care:” Exploring Institutional Links Between Child Protection and Homelessness. In Gaetz, O’Grady, Buccieri, Karabanow & Marsolais (Eds.), Youth Homelessness in Canada: Implications for Policy and Practice. Toronto: Canadian Homelessness Research Network Press.
Nichols, N. & Griffith, A.I. (2009). Talk, texts and educational action: An institutional ethnography of policy in practice. Cambridge Journal of Education, 39(2), 241-255.
Nichols, N. (2009). Strange Bedfellows: A Transformative Community-Based Research Project Inspired by Hannah Arendt and Dorothy E. Smith. Theory and Action, 2(2), 61-73.
Nichols, N. (2008). Gimme Shelter! Investigating the Social Service Interface from the Standpoint of Youth. Journal of Youth Studies, 11(6), 685-699.
Nichols, N. (2008). Understanding the Funding Game: The textual coordination of civil sector work. The Canadian Journal of Sociology, 33(1), 61-88.
Norstedt, M., & Breimo, J. (2016). Moving Beyond Everyday Life in Institutional Ethnographies: Methodological Challenges and Ethical Dilemmas. Forum: Qualitative Social Researc, Socialforschung, 17(2).
Norstedt, M. (2015). Arbeidsliv och funksjonshindre. Institusjonelle paradoxer. I Widerberg, K. (red.) I hjertet av velferdsstaten. En invitasjon til institusjonell etnografi. Oslo: Cappelen Damm.
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Ridzi, F. M. (2003). Processing private lives in public: An institutional ethnography of front-line welfare intake staff post welfare reform (Doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University).
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Solomon, B. M. (1999). An illusion of difference: Reconstituting women on welfare into the working poor (Doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University).
Talbot, D. (2016). Evidence for no-one: Standards, accreditation and transformed teaching work. Teaching and Teacher Education, 58(2016), 80-89.
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