2019 Proposed Resolutions
- “Expression of Gratitude”
- “Resolution Affirming the Principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights”
Submitted by Louis E. Esparza
- “Resolution in Support of the Green New Deal”
Submitted by Todd E. Vachon
- “Resolution on BDS”
Submitted by Melissa Weiner and Johnny E. Williams
Our sincere appreciation is expressed to all of the officers, committee chairs, and members who have made this program possible and whose efforts maintain the vitality of the Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP). First, we thank President Nancy J. Mezey for her outstanding leadership in developing the 69th Annual Meeting and its theme: Illuminating the SOCIAL in Social Problems. We also thank this year’s Program Committee members Yvonne M. Luna, Derron O. Wallace, and Stephani Williams, but especially the committee’s chair, E. Brooke Kelly, for putting together such an excellent program; and the Local Arrangements Committee Chair Keumjae Park and her committee Sophie Foster-Palmer, Melanie Lorek, and Nga Than. We thank the staff of the Roosevelt Hotel for our accommodations, and we particularly want to recognize the efforts made by Michelle Cromby, Convention Services Manager; Rana Tracy, Director of Convention Services; and Kevin Klein, Director of Association Sales.
The Society wishes to express its gratitude to Past President Luis A. Fernandez for his years of leadership; Vice-President William D. Cabin for managing the resolutions process; Glenn W. Muschert for his service as Secretary; and Susan M. Carlson for her service as Treasurer.
The Society also thanks Heather Dalmage, President-Elect; Daina Cheyenne Harvey, Vice-President-Elect; Board of Directors: Maralee Mayberry, Fernando I. Rivera, Yvonne A. Braun, Matthew W. Hughey, Debbie A. Potter, outgoing members Sarah Jane Brubaker, Claire M. Renzetti, student representatives of the Board Maria D. Duenas (outgoing) and Apoorva Ghosh, Kristen M. Budd, Chairperson of the Council of the Divisions; Annulla Linders and Earl Wright II, Co-Editors of Social Problems; Lauren Eastwood, outgoing Budget, Finance, and Audit Committee Chair and committee members Susan M. Carlson, Heather E. Dillaway, and Louis Edgar Esparza; Rogelio Saenz, outgoing Editorial and Publications Committee Chair and committee members Jackie Krasas, Heather MacIndoe, Loretta E. Bass, Valerie Leiter, A. Javier Treviño, Lauren Eastwood, Pamela Anne Quiroz, Annulla Linders, and Earl Wright II; and the University of Tennessee and the Department of Sociology for hosting the SSSP Administrative Office. A special thanks to our sponsors for their financial contributions to program activities: Vassar College, Department of Sociology; Michigan State University, Department of Sociology; and Monmouth University, Office of the Provost; and to the Journal of Occupational Science and Oxford University Press for their financial contributions to the conference bags.
The Society wishes to thank Administrative Officer & Meeting Manager Michele Smith Koontz, Assistant to the Administrative Officer Kelsey Arnold, Information Technology Specialist Rachel Cogburn, Graduate Research Associate & Webmaster Caitlin Mize (outgoing) and the leaders of the 22 Divisions for continuing to make the Society run and be successful in fulfilling its mission year in and year out.
Finally, the Society wishes to thank Executive Officer Héctor L. Delgado for his numerous contributions to SSSP’s success over the last decade. Words cannot express our gratitude for the countless ways in which he has given of his time, energy, and thoughtful guidance and leadership. SSSP is forever indebted to him.
Submitted by Louis E. Esparza
WHEREAS, human rights affirm the universal dignity of each person;
WHEREAS, knowledge of and support for universal human rights is essential for the maintenance of peace and the progress of social justice;
WHEREAS, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights grants all human beings the right to adequate food, water, shelter, health care, education, life, liberty, nationality, marriage, social security, religion, assembly, work, property, leisure, unionization, expression, among other civil, political, and economic rights and without discrimination of any kind1;
WHEREAS, the Universal Declaration of human rights was written after the violent death of well over 50,000,0002 people in World War II with the intention of averting the worst of human violence, brokered by Eleanor Roosevelt, and passed unopposed in the General Assembly of the United Nations;
WHEREAS, governments, corporations, and individuals continue to violate universal human rights in the United States and abroad;
WHEREAS, the violation of universal human rights leads to the degradation of the human condition;
WHEREAS, the Purpose of the Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP) includes fostering “higher quality of life, social welfare, and positive social relations in society and the global community and to undertake any activity related thereto or necessary or desirable for the accomplishment of the foregoing purposes;
WHEREAS, the Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP) is a member of the Human Rights Coalition of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which defends the right of all individuals to benefit from the advancements of science3;
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP) affirms the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948; and
BE IT RESOLVED, that the Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP) will communicate support for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to the leaders of both parties in the House of Representatives and the Senate and the President of the United States; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the SSSP will stand with the nations and other public and private entities that remain steadfast to upholding the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, posting this resolution on its website.
Attachment B: Text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
WHEREAS, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
WHEREAS, disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
WHEREAS, it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
WHEREAS, it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
WHEREAS, the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
WHEREAS, Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
WHEREAS, a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,
NOW, THEREFORE, THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.
(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.
(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.
Submitted by Todd E. Vachon
WHEREAS, climate change is an urgent crisis confronting people all over the world: extreme weather, rising sea levels, and pollution are wreaking havoc on human health, natural ecosystems, and all life on the planet1; and
WHEREAS, the climate crisis exacerbates already-existing systemic injustices along racial, regional, social, and economic lines2; and
WHEREAS, the climate crisis highlights growing income inequality and a decline in labor standards in the United States3; and
WHEREAS, the climate crisis has had a disproportionate impact on “frontline communities” (including Indigenous communities, communities of color, migrant communities, deindustrialized communities, the poor, low-income workers, women, the elderly, the unhoused, people with disabilities, and youth4); and
WHEREAS, the Society for the Study of Social Problems has previously resolved to support a “just transition to renewable energy with justice for workers and frontline communities5;” and
WHEREAS, the Green New Deal Resolution, sponsored by Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Senator Ed Markey, was introduced, February 6, 2019 in the U.S. Congress; and
WHEREAS, the Green New Deal Resolution is an extremely ambitious framework for a series of projects and policies to achieve the following goals, among others, by the year 2030: net-zero greenhouse gas emissions through a fair and just transition for frontline communities and workers; millions of good, high-wage jobs and ensure prosperity and economic security for all; investments in U.S. infrastructure, industry, and society to sustainably meet the challenges of the 21st century; clean air and water, climate resiliency, sustainable livelihoods, and access to nature for all for generations to come; and justice and equity for frontline communities by repairing current and historic harms; and
WHEREAS, the Green New Deal resolution calls for “transparent and inclusive consultation, collaboration, and partnership with frontline and vulnerable communities, labor unions, worker cooperatives, civil society groups, academia, and businesses6;”
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Society for the Study of Social Problems wholeheartedly endorses the Green New Deal resolution and urges its swift adoption by the U.S. Congress; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Society for the Study of Social Problems reaffirms its commitment to a 100% clean and renewable energy economy, including: A massive investment in energy efficient infrastructure to ensure clean drinking water, affordable and efficient public transportation, energy efficient buildings and schools; Good jobs and union-friendly policies in the green energy economy; and Investment in good jobs in communities historically dependent on the fossil fuel industry so that no workers and no communities are left behind.
FINALLY, BE IT RESOLVED that the Society for the Study of Social Problems will communicate support for the Green New Deal Resolution to leaders of both parties in the House of Representatives and the Senate, all members of the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, the House Committee of Natural Resources, the Director of the Environmental Protection Agency, the President of the United States of America, and all candidates for the office of President of the United States of America7.
1 U.S. Global Change Research Program. 2017. Climate Change Impacts in the United States.Fourth National Climate Assessment. Retrieved January 12, 2018 (www.globalchange.gov).
2 Worland, Justin. 2019. “Climate Change Has Already Increased Global Inequality. It Will Only Get Worse.” Time, April 22: http://time.com/5575523/climate-change-inequality/
3 Irwin, Neil. 2019. “Climate Change’s Giant Impact on the Economy: 4 Key Issues.” New York Times, January 17: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/17/upshot/how-to-think-about-the-costs-of-climate-change.html
4 Tucker, Josephine, et al. 2015. “Social Vulnerability in Three High-poverty Climate Change Hot Spots: What does the Climate Change Literature Tell Us?” Regional Environmental Change 15:783-800.
5 SSSP. 2018. RESOLUTION 1: Just Transition to Renewable Energy with Justice for Workers and Frontline Communities. https://www.sssp1.org/file/2018AM/2018_Approved_Resolutions.pdf.
6 116thCongress. 2019. H.R. 109: Recognizing the Duty of the Federal Government to Create a Green New Deal https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-resolution/109/text
7 All contact information for these offices provided in attached document.
Submitted by Melissa Weiner and Johnny E. Williams
WHEREAS, the vast majority of Palestinian civil society organizations have called on international civil, academic, and cultural communities to end complicity in Israel’s decades-old violations of Palestinian rights and to engage in non-violent pressure on Israel until it complies with international law and universal principles of human rights1, by meeting three demands:
1.) Ending its occupation and colonization of all Arab lands [occupied in 1967] and dismantling the Wall,
2.) Recognizing the fundamental rights of the Arab-Palestinian citizens of Israel to full equality; and
3.) Respecting, protecting and promoting the rights of Palestinian refugees to return to their homes and properties
as stipulated in UN resolution 1942,
WHEREAS, Palestinian academics face academic freedom violations in the form of inhibitions by the State of Israel from attending conferences, completing research, traveling outside of Palestine to earn degrees, and acquiring the most recent publications in the form of journals and books3,
WHEREAS, the State of Israel routinely violates the academic freedom of Palestinians students through harassment on their way to school at checkpoints and in public, attacks on schools using tear gas and rubber bullets, the bombing of higher educational institutions, raids of schools and arrests of faculty and students, invasion of campuses and killing of Palestinian students, arresting and detaining students, and defunding of schools created by the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine (UNRWA4),
WHEREAS, some Israeli universities exist, in part or in full, on stolen Palestinian land in the occupied West Bank, including East Jerusalem, in violation of international law5,
“Not a single Israeli academic institution has petitioned the Israeli government to protect Palestinian rights to education or to cease interference with and destruction of Palestinian schools and colleges… A boycott of academic institutions is the strongest message possible that Israel cannot claim normality and ask to be considered in the fold of democratic societies while maintaining an apartheid state and a brutal occupation6."
WHEREAS, Palestinians living in Israel experience limits to their academic freedom through a racially segregated education system with overcrowded, underfunded, and fewer schools, fewer kindergartens, fewer Special Education programs for their children. This has resulted in Palestinian children in Israel experiencing higher dropout rates and lower pass rates for national exams required for entrance to higher education. Israeli courts have “never found the state to be in violation of the law or ordered it to end discriminatory practices7,”
WHEREAS, Israeli academic institutions are a key part of the ideological and institutional scaffolding of Israel’s regime of occupation, colonialism, and apartheid through the production of policies, programs, and technologies that enable and sustain these forms of oppression8,
WHEREAS, Israeli military authorities have closed Palestinian universities and destroyed cultural and academic institutions9
WHEREAS, scholars, students, and student groups addressing human rights violations in Palestine and Israel are routinely harassed at US colleges and universities10,
WHEREAS, it is increasingly difficult for international academics (including US citizens) to be admitted into the occupied Palestinian territory as entry is dependent on Israeli approval and are repeatedly denied by Israeli military authorities, thereby severely compromising Palestinian universities’ ability to employ international faculty11,
WHEREAS, US tax dollars support the military repression and oppression of Palestinians in Israel, the occupied West Bank and Gaza12,
WHEREAS, Palestinian civil society organization have called on academic and professional organizations to engage in a boycott of Israeli universities for their complicity in Palestinian oppression13,
WHEREAS, the SSSP mission statement calls on us “to foster higher quality of life, social welfare, and positive social relations in society and the global community and to undertake any activity related thereto or necessary or desirable for the accomplishment of the foregoing purposes” alongside “strict adherence... to the protection of the right to engage in intellectual debates of all types without fear of censorship or retaliation14,”
WHEREAS, “SSSP is engaged in multiple avenues of social justice research and action” and “regularly participates in calls to action on various social justice issues15,”
WHEREAS, SSSP protects the rights of all scholars, students and faculty, to address the human rights violations in their scholarship and speak out against it without experiencing harassment, bullying, or consequences to their employment, scholarship, or rights to free speech,
WHEREAS, sociologists engaged in critical race and systemic white racism scholarship recognize the institutionalized power relations and structural violence16 inherent in the occupation as diametrically opposed to full equality in academia and academic freedom,
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, be it resolved, that the Society for the Study of Social Problems endorses the call for a boycott of complicit Israeli academic institutions articulated by our Palestinian colleagues17 until they end all forms of complicity in Israel’s grave human rights violations and publicly distance themselves from these violations
BE IT ALSO RESOLVED, that SSSP send a letter to the PACBI organization regarding our support of their resolution with ours18,
BE IT ALSO RESOLVED, that SSSP publicize these BDS Resolutions on the SSSP webpage,
BE IT ALSO RESOLVED, “recognizing that different actions may be feasible and appropriate under the many different academic and political circumstances that pertain in US institutions, SSSP will urge its members to undertake as many of the following initiatives as possible:
1. Support Palestinian academic and cultural institutions directly without requiring them to partner with Israeli
counterparts as an explicit or implicit condition for such support;
2. Encourage your university and college administrations to institute funding for scholarships and fellowships for
3. Refrain from participation in any form of academic and cultural cooperation, collaboration or joint projects with
complicit Israeli institutions;
4. Promote divestment and disinvestment from Israel by academic institutions, and place pressure on your own
institution to suspend all ties with Israeli universities, including collaborative projects, study abroad, funding and
1 Abunimah, Ali. 2014. The Battle for Justice in Palestine.Chicago: Haymarket; bdsmovement.net/call, bdsmovement.net/pacbi; Barghouti, Omar. 2011. Boycott Divestment Sanctions: The Global Struggle for Palestinian Rights. Chicago: Haymarket.
3 American Libraries Magazine, June 27. https://americanlibrariesmagazine.org/blogs/the-scoop/academic-libraries-palestine/; Baramki, Gabi. 2010. Peaceful Resistance: Building a Palestinian University under Occupation.Chicago: Haymarket; Barghouti 2011, Eberhart, George M. 2016. “Academic Libraries in Palestine: Challenges and Frustrations of Information Access in the Palestinian Territories”; Mullen, Bill V. and Ashley Dawson, Eds. 2015. Against Apartheid: The Case for Boycotting Israeli Universities. Chicago: Haymarket.
4 Ecumenical Accompaniment Programme in Palestine and Israel (EAPPI). 2013. Education Under Apartheid: Access to Education in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. Geneva: World Council of Churches and UNICEF https://www.unicef.org/oPt/UNICEF_Under_Occupation_final-SMALL.pdf; United Nations Development Programme. 2014. “Education.” 2014 Palestine Human Development Report. New York: United Nations.“Education.” 2014 Palestine Human Development Report. New York: United Nations. https://www.undp.org/content/dam/papp/docs/Publications/UNDP-papp-research-PHDR2015Education.pdf
5 Hebrew University sits on land illegally acquired in 1968 while Ariel University is located in the illegal settlement of Ariel in the West Bank.
7 Coursen-Neff, Zama. 2004. “Discrimination against Palestinian Arab Children in the Israeli Educational System.” International Law & Politics36(749): 101-162, Human Rights Watch. 2001. Second Class: Discrimination against Palestinian Arab Children in Israel’s Schools. New York: Human Rights Watch.
8 http://www.pacbi.org/etemplate.php?id=2613; Mullen & Dawson 2015.
9 Almeghari, Rami. 2014. “Israel Attacks my University - with Bombs and Lies,” Electronic Intifada, August 4, https://electronicintifada.net/content/israel-attacks-my-university-bombs-and-lies/13697; Baramki 2010; Birzeit University. Nd. “University Closure History.” https://www.birzeit.edu/en/about/history/education-under-occupation/closures-history; Kabariti, Ahmad. 2018. “‘It is a War Against Every Part of Palestinian Identity: Israel Destroys Popular Gaza Cultural Center.” Mondoweiss, August 10. https://mondoweiss.net/2018/08/palestinian-identity-destroys/;Middle East Monitor, “Occupation Forces Close Vicinity of Al-Quds University, Prevent Students from Entering,” October 5, https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20181005-occupation-forces-close-vicinity-of-al-quds-university-prevent-students-from-entering/.
10 Salaita, Steven. 2015. Uncivil Rights: Palestine and the Limits of Academic Freedom. Chicago: Haymarket.
11 Abou Jalal, Rasha. 2018. “Palestinians Decry Israeli Visa Restrictions on Foreign Academics.” Al-Monitor, July 22, https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2018/07/israel-denies-visa-foreign-professors-palestinian-university.html; Kundera, Naomi. 2018. “Israeli Visa Crackdown Affects Palestinian Higher Education.” Palestine Monitor, August 9. http://www.palestinemonitor.org/details.php?id=9qzu2ka19923ymctgm73xf.
12 Sharp, Jeremy M. 2018. “U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel.” Washington DC: Congressional Research Service.
13 Abunimah, Ali. 2014. The Battle for Justice in Palestine.Chicago: Haymarket; bdsmovement.net/call, bdsmovement.net/pacbi; Barghouti, Omar. 2011. Boycott Divestment Sanctions: The Global Struggle for Palestinian Rights. Chicago: Haymarket.
16 Delgado, Richard. S., & Jean J. Stefancic. 2001. Critical Race Theory: An Introduction. New York: New York University Press.
18 Letter to be sent to: 19 https://usacbi.org/mission-statement/